Even classical materials ar far from out of fashion. Whether concrete, ceramics, plastics, wood or metals: as substrates (joining partners), they make the part in an adhesive bond that has to absorb the forces and stresses
For the case of a substrate tear (as in the example of wood shown in the picture below), it is necessary to know how the fracture toughness and resistance to breakage affect the further crack propagation when the maximum permissible operating voltage has already been exceeded.
Does an immediate abrupt and thus uncontrolled failure occur, or does the crack even get stuck? We can answer these and other questions!